CANCER SCREENING TESTS WITH PROVEN EFFICIENCY
Effective Cancer Screening Tests
Cancer screening tests aim to find cancer early, before it causes symptoms and when it may be easier to treat successfully. Effective screening tests are those that:
- Find cancer early
- Reduce the chance that someone who is screened regularly will die from the cancer
- Have more potential benefits than harms. (Possible harms of screening tests include bleeding or other physical damage, inaccurate test results, and overdiagnosis—the diagnosis of cancers that would not have caused problems and did not need treatment.)
Colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and stool tests (high-sensitivity fecal occult blood tests and stool DNA tests)
Several screening tests have been shown to reduce the risk of dying from colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy not only detect colorectal cancer early but also help prevent the disease in the first place. That’s because these tests can find abnormal colon growths (polyps) that can be removed before they become cancer. Expert groups generally recommend that people who are at average risk for colorectal cancer have screening with one of these tests at ages 50 through 75. For more information, see the Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps fact sheet and the PDQ® Colorectal Cancer Screening summary.
Low-dose helical computed tomography</strong.
This test to screen for lung cancer has been shown to reduce lung cancer deaths among heavy smokers ages 55 to 74. For more information, see the National Lung Screening Trial page and the PDQ® Lung Cancer Screening summary.
This method to screen for breast cancer has been shown to reduce deaths from the disease among women ages 40 to 74, especially those over age 50. For more information, see the Mammograms fact sheet and the PDQ® Breast Cancer Screening summary.
Pap test and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing
These tests, which can be used both alone and in combination, can lead to both early detection and prevention of cervical cancer. They prevent the disease because they allow abnormal cells to be found and treated before they become cancer. Testing is generally recommended to begin at age 21 and to end at age 65 in women who have had adequate prior screening and are not otherwise at high risk for cervical cancer. For more information, see the Pap and HPV Testing fact sheet and the PDQ® Cervical Cancer Screening summary.
OTHER SCREENING TESTS
Screening tests not shown to be effective but still offered especially to people at increased risk of cancer.
ALPHA FETO PROTEIN BLOOD TEST
Used along with ultrasound of liver in an attempt to detect liver cancer early in high-risk individuals.For more information, see the PDQ® Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening summary.
Usually advised in women who carry a genetic mutation in BRCA1/2 gene. Women with these mutations have a high risk of breast cancer and other cancers. For more information, see the BRCA Mutations: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testing fact sheet and the PDQ® Breast Cancer Screening summary.
Usually recommended in high-risk individuals for ovarian cancer.
Usually performed along with digital rectal examination. Helps in detecting prostate cancer at an early stage. It is not recommended anymore as prostatic cancers are slow-growing and early detection does not contribute to reducing the chances of dying from prostatic cancer.
For more information, see the Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test fact sheet and the PDQ® Prostate Cancer Screening summary.
Found to use in individuals who are susceptible and at high risk to develop skin cancers. It May does not reduce the chances of death from cancer.
For more information, see the Common Moles, Dysplastic Nevi, and Risk of Melanoma fact sheet and the PDQ® Skin Cancer Screening summary.
Useful in visualizing ovaries and uterus especially in women who are at increased risk of ovarian cancer (BRCA1/2 mutations) or endometrial cancer (lynch syndrome).
For more information, see the PDQ® Ovarian Cancer Screening summary and the PDQ® Endometrial Cancer Screening summary.
Test allows examination of colon and rectum from outside the body. It can reveal abnormalities within and outside the colon which might be evaluated further. Can be advised as a screening test in select individuals.
COMPLETE INFORMATION ABOUT SCREENING TESTS FOR SPECIFIC CANCER TYPE INCLUDING FOR THOSE IN DEVELOPMENT CAN BE ACCESSED AT THE PDQ® CANCER INFORMATION SUMMARIES: SCREENING/DETECTION (TESTING FOR CANCER)
Dr.ChinnaBabu Sunkavalli, the Top Surgical Oncologist offers low-cost screening test packages for cancer patients available at Apollo Hospitals, Hyderabad, Telangana, India to treat cancer patients, available online for International Cancer Patients with online/video appointments.
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